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بحث منشور للدكتور وصفي ظاهر The effect of stress on alkaline phosphatase ,testosterone hormone concentration and some blood parameters after rats immersed in water

Journal of Basrah Researches ((Sciences))Vol. 36, No.6, A. 15 December ((2010))
38
The effect of stress on alkaline phosphatase ,testosterone hormone
concentration and some blood parameters after rats immersed in water
ISSN  1817ــ 2695
S. I. Selim1, W . DH. AbdAli2and H. M. Rashad31

College of Veterinary Med. .Zagazig University- Egy pt.
2College of Nursing . Basrah University
3College of Medicine- Zagazig University
((Received 18/2/2010, Accepted 25/10/2010))

Abstract
This study was carried out using Twenty one albino rats with same age and weighed from ( 250-300 gm) subdivided into 3 groups. The  first group(7) as control group, The second  group(7) rats were immersed in glass gar containing warm water at40 Cْ up to the neck of rats for 2 hours. The third
group was immersed in glass gar containing cold water at 4Cْ similar to the second group at the same time

The rats were sacrificed immediately at the end of the experimental period , blood was collected
then Alkaline phosphatase concentration , RBCs count, Hb, sodium, potassium, calcium ,phosphorous
concentration and testosterone hormone level were measured
Results showed slightly significant decreased(  P<0.05) in alkaline phosphatase concentration and
testosterone hormone level and decreased in RBCs count insignificantly While Hb. Na
+,k Ca
++
and phosphorus  concentration  showed  significant  increase(  P<0.05)  after  immersion   in  both   hot  and
cold water .
Key words:Alkaline phosphatase ,testosterone and blood elements

Introduction
Immersion  was  associated  with  a  marked suppression  of plasma rennin activity  and plasma aldesteron concentration, together with an increase
in  urinary  prostaglandin  excretion [  1],  [2]   .
[3]Added that rennin was secreted in response to a
fall  of  renal  afferent  and  arteriolar  pressure  was
reduced in supply of Na
+
to the distal tubules they also reported that alkaline phosphatase declines as a result of any stress..
Both angiotensine-11 and its metabolic product angiotensine-111  are  pharmacologically  activated
and they stimulated the release of aldesteron from adrenal  cortex  ,  aldesteron  acts  on  the  distal
tubules  to  promote  Na+  reabsorption[4].[5] Studied the  effect of  cold  water immersion, body
temperatures, and  vessel  diameter. [6]  Concluded that,  water  immersion  caused  vasodilatation  and
no  skin  wrinkling  in  replanted  fingers  was reported.  These  results  imply  that  the  intact
sympathetic  nerve  function  is  required  to  induce the vasocontructive effect.
The aim of the current study was to delineate the  effects  of  stress  on  hot  and  cold   on  some
blood  element  ,Na
+
,  K
+
,  Ph,  Ca
++
    together  with ،HB  ,RBCs,  alkaline  phosphatase  and  testosterone concentration Materials and methods
This  study  was  conducted  in  Libya  2007 .Healthy  male  albino  rats  were  used  as experimental  animals,  weighed  (250-300  gm)
were  used  for  this  experiment,  they  were  divided equally  into  three  groups.1 st  group,  Including  (7) rats,  were  left  in  the  air  at  room  temperature   for
compliable  period  of  time(2  hours).  2 nd group immersed in water for 2 hrs at 4o Cْ . 3 rd group (7)  rats  were  subjected  to  water  immersion  for  (2  hrs
)which  was  conducted  in  a  large  glass  container
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Journal of Basrah Researches ((Sciences))Vol. 36, No.6, A. 15 December ((2010))

filled  with  water  ,  heated  or  colded  to  the  desired temperature  and  regulated   by  means  of thermostat.
Animals were kept in hot water rand binded by a  thread  at  the  of  each  animal  chest  .The  blood
was collected at the end of the immersion period 2  hrs),as  similar  period   in  the  air  in  the  control
group,  they  were  Sacrificed  and  blood  samples were  collected  in  polyethylene  tubes  containing
heparin  from  abdominal  vein  .data  for  Hb  and RBCs  count  using  Heamocytometer.  Na
+
,  K
+
,Ca++  and  P  measured  by  using  flameplatometer
  [7]  . Testosterone  was  measured according to the
method  of  [8].  Alkaline   phosphatase  was measured according to[9] Data  were  Collected   and  analyzed  by  0ne-time
ANOVA  with t-test  for  comparison significant at the 0.05 level.  [10].A  comparison  of the results obtained  between  control  ,cold  and  hot  water
immersion using the percentage differences.
Results
The  result   after  the   immersion  of  rats  in  hot water showed insignificant alteration on Alkaline phosphatase  (-  8.81%  ),HB(-5.44%   ),  RBCs(  9-7.54%)  and  Testosterone(-47.17%  ).  table(1).Also showed  insignificant  alteration  on  Alkaline phosphatase  (-6.19%),Hb(-13.6%),  RBCs(-9.43
%)and Testosterone (47.17% ).
Table:(2) showed significant increase ( P<0.05)
in Na
+
,K
+
Ca
++
, and phosphorus (15.97 %), (25 %),
(13.86%)  ,  (14.87%)   respectively  after  the
immersion  of  rats  in  hot  water  also  showed significant  increased   (  P<0.05)  in  Na
+
,K
+
 ,  Ca
++
,
and  phosphor  after  cold  water  immersion  (18.5  %
),( 33.3 %), (11.22%) ,(20.29 %)respectively.
Table(1):, The mean of concentration and changes in alkaline phosphatase ,Hb ,RBCs count, and concentration of testosterone in control and worm and cold water immersed rats.

Discussion
The  study  investigated   a  decrease  in alkaline  phosphatase   tablets(1)after  2  hrs immersion in hot and cold water and this could
be due to the dilution by intracellular fluid shift  during  immersion[11].[3] reported  that  alkaline phosphatase  decline  as  a  result  of  any  stress.
Also  showed  decreased of Hb which might be due to dilution by intracellular fluid shift due to haemodilution  which  fallows  extracellular
volume  expansion  during  immersion,  or  might be  due  to  a   decreased   in  oxygen  transport  to the  tissues  ,hence  it  increase  the   incidence  of
fatigue.  [12]Pointed that  following  ice-water immersion,  hyperventilation  induced  a  marked reduction  in  middle  cerebral  artery  (MCA  )
which  has  been  associated  with  the disorientation and the loss of consciousness A  decrease  testosterone  hormone concentration  in  male  rats  after  hot  and  cold water  immersion  in  different  temperature  for  2 hrs    in accordance with the result which showed the  possible  cause  of   this  decrease  in
testosterone  level  that   may  be  due  to  the haemodilution  accompanying  with  fluid  shift  from  interstitial  intravascular  components[13]   .
[14] add  that  stresses  of  different  origins  and
causes  might  decrease  testosterone  level  and increase  cortisole  concentration  which  shares  in this  testosterone  declination  in  the  blood  .[15]
indicated  that  testosterone  and  cortisole   play  a very important role in the metabolism specially during   stress   as  testosterone  is  powerful
anabolic  and  cortisole  as  catabolic hormones.[16]  reported  that  testosterone  has vital  action  on  the  protein  metabolism  and
respond negatively to stress Many  studies  have  demonstrated  that  rats exposed  to  the  condition  that  induce  and maintain  the  states  of   anxiety  and  stress
developed  hyper  sensitive  state [17],  [18] [19]pointed  that  stresses  have  vasocontructive effect  and  increase  transmembrane  exchange  of Na  /H  and  alterate  Na
+
/K
+
+,Ca
++
 transport  and
consequent changes in calcium ion.  [20]reported phosphor  importance  and  its  action  in  cellular signals  and  the  phosphorilization  to  produce
energy The   immersion  for  2  hrs   caused insignificantly  in  a  decrease  in  sodium concentration at different hot and cold compared
to  control  ,on  the  other  hand  a  decrease  in potassium  concentration  in  both  and  cold Immersion groups respectively .The decrease of
sodium  concentration  observed  after  the immersion   in  this  study  could  be  caused  by decrease  sodium  reabsorption.  In  addition  the
haemodilution  accompanying  fluid  shift  from interstitial  to  intravascular  compartment  could also  contribute.  Several  mechanism  have  been
suggested to clarify the exact cause of decreased sodium  reabsorption  of  aldesteron  secretion [2].[4]Explained the major actions of aldesteron
on Na
+
transports and the flaw of Na
+
from the luminal fluid loathing the apical surface of renal cell passively through Na
+
canal. Na
+
is then transported  into  interstitial  fluid  through  the serosal side of the cells by the Na
+
K
+
dependant ATP  ase  pump.  ATP  provides   the  energy required  for  this  active  presses  also  stated  that the   other  mechanism  involving  different
aldesteron  regulated  proteins,  may  be  involved in the handling of K
+
and H
+
.[21]Found that
potassium  level  was  decreased  as  a  result  of increased it level in urine output As  regards  the  changes  of  Ca+  and phosphorus  concentration  encountered  in  this study showed a significant increase(  P<0.05) in hot water and cold water for 2 hrs ,this increase can  be  explained   ,that  haemodilution  which
fallows  extracellular  volume  expansion  during immersion  ,lower  Ca
+
 level  which  in  turn stimulated  the  release  of  parathyroid  hormone .The  changes  in  calcium  and  phosphors
suggested  that  parathyroid  hormone  may  be increased  during  the   immersion  with  the activation  of  bone  reabsorption  [22] .  The increase in phosphors  during immersion  could be due to the increase in mobilization of bone minerals  without  proportional  increase   in urinary excretion [23].

Conclusion
The study concluded that the stresses after the immersion  in  hot  and  cold  water  had  a  negative effects  on  the  alkaline  phosphatase  ,testosterone
, RBCs count ,Hb, and positive effects on blood
serum Ca
++
Na
+
,k
+
, and phosphor.
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41
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