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بحث منشور للدكتور وصفي ظاهر بعنوان HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MALE RABBITS THYROID GLAND

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MALE RABBITS THYROID GLAND

FOLLOWING DRENCHING OF NICKEL CHLORIDE AND THE AMELIORATING

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC SILYBUM MARIANUM SEEDS EXTRACT

 

WASFI DHAHIR ABID ALI1, ZAINAB WAHEED KHUDAIR2 & MANHAL JABBAR ABED3

 

1College of Nursing, University of Basrah, Iraq

 

2,3College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basrah, Iraq

 

ABSTRACT

Nickel chloride known as one of the heavy metals that induce damage in different body organs also silymarin act as anti oxidants and have ameliorative effects against many diseases and drags. The histological effect of nickel chloride 

 

and Silybum marianum seeds ethanolic extract on thyroid gland of fifteen male rabbits Lepus cuniculus ) were studied for 35 days. Three groups of rabbits (n = 5 each) , first group rabbits served as control and given 1 ml normal saline , second

group treated orally with dosages of 1mg/100g B.W nickel chloride, the third group treated nickel chloride1mg/100g B.W

 

plus 0.1mg silymarin extract . the results revealed a severe damage of thyroid gland structures while Silybum marianum  extract ameliorated the severity of damage.

 

KEYWORDS: Thyroid, Nickel, Silymarin

INTRODUCTION

Thyroid gland secretes hormones T3 and T4 which stimulated by TSH that secreted from pituitary gland to control the body’s metabolic rateand using iodine to create thyroid hormone, this gland affected by some heavy metals [1, 2].

Nickel is the heavy metal that originates from different natural and artificial sources as air, water, soil and living organisms

 

(ATSDR 2005).and it is most rapidly and completely absorbed in animals and human. Study showed that nickel

 

significantly decreases iodine uptake by the thyroid (Bogdan, et al. 2011). Heavy metals affect thyroid function in different

 

ways , some of them via affecting thyroid hormone receptors as in arsenic Ciarrocca, et al. 2012and Jennifer et al. 2007 .

 

Hammouda, et al. ( 2008 ) stated that thyroid dysfunction induced by cadmium . Liang, et al. (2003) found that lead exposure can lead to depressed thyroid hormone levels. study concerning the histological effects on structure of thyroid        

 

tissue were few , in rats, injection of nickel sulfate (NiSO4) caused epithelial proliferation in the thyroid glands (Al-

 

Mogairen, (2009)). Potassium dichromate induced structural changes in the thyroid follicular cells that were partially improved by vitamin C supplementation(Reda and Sadika,2012)

 

Silymarin extracted from Silybum marianum know as antioxidant, Sonnenbichler et al. (1999) pointed cytoprotective effects of silymarin against both the disease and/ or drugs-induced renal damage more ever silymarin minimized the incidence and severity of histopathological changes in liver Maryam et al. (2010) . (Sallan et al.2006 insure

          the ameliorative effects of silymarin on liver damage induced by lead toxicity in rats and in rabbits against alcohol toxicity

MATERIALS AND METHODS

 

 

 

Fifteen male rabbits( Lepus cuniculus ) of 8 to 10 month age weight 1.250-1.500 kg, randomly divided into three

 

 

 

groups ten for each group treated for 35 day. Control group : 5 male rabbits was served as control group and received orally

 

 

1  ml normal saline(NaCl 0.9%) and second group orally received 1mg /100gram B.W NiCl2 orally. Second group : received

 

1mg /100gram B.W NiCl2 fallowed by 0.1mg/100gram B.W ethanolic extract of silymarein from Silybum marianum seeds (Iraq-Mosel) (Abid -Ali et al. 2014).Thyroid gland isolated surgically for histological examination served in containers filled with 10% formalin. Histopatological technique for microscopic examination leslie and James (2007)

 

 

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

 

 

 

Histological changes were found in the cross sections of thyroid gland after 35 day of receiving NiCl2 , Figure 1

 

 

 

and 2 showed hyperplasia of acinar cells and vaculation of epithelial cells as well as excessive amount of fluid and more

 

acini were without secretion in addition there were mild inflammatory cells figure 3. Hyperplasia of follicular cells and

 

 

nuclei appeared oval,were seen following acute exposure to hexavalent chromium. Mahmood et al. (2010).

 

C-cell hyperplasia was detected as target cells of thyroid gland for nickel Cheng et al. 1997and Sonne et al. 2009)

 

 

 

. Subcutaneous administration of nickel chloride on rats caused mild proliferation of the thyroid follicles, the follicles

 

 

became smaller in size, the amount of colloid were diminished and lined by plump cuboidal epithelium (Sultan 2009). The

 

 

 

proliferation of the epithelial cells of thyroid gland, the nuclei were transformed suggest that nickel chloride may injure

 

thyroid gland of the rabbits(figure 4).

 

 

In the cross section figure 5 ,thyroid gland tissue structures of the male rabbits that received NiCl2 plus silymarin

 

 

 

extract showed more active acini and less edema and thyroid follicular cells were partially improved silymarin

 

supplementation.

 

 

Maryam et al.,(2010)showed the important of silymarin againest Isoniazid Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rabbits.

 

Rajiha, (2012) found therapeutic effect of Silybum marianum on the lead acetate induced toxicity on testes. These finding

 

 

 

may provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies of silymarin for protection against the damages.

 

 

Figure 1: Cross Section in Male Thyroid Gland Treated with Nickel Chloride Showed

 

Hyperplasia of Cells (Thick Raw) and Odematous Fluid (Thin Raw) (H&E) Stain X 10

 

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